Fluorescence
 

Fluorescence is the decay from S1 to S0 as shown in this Jablonski Diagram

Fluorescence is the emission of a photon with the decay from the S1 excited state to the S0 ground state.  Generally, fluorescent emissions occur approximately 10-9 to 10-7 seconds after excitation. Fluorescence spectrometers are designed to collect and measure the emitted photons.

The microfluorometer is a fluorescence spectrometer interfaced with a microscope.  They are designed to measure fluorescence spectra of microscopic samples or microscopic areas of larger objects.  There are two basic types: the fully integrated microfluorometer that has been built and optimized for fluorescence microspectroscopy and the fluorescence spectrometer unit designed to attach to an open photoport of an optical microscope. The beauty of microfluorometers is that they can also be configured to measure the transmission and reflectance spectra of microscopic sample areas in addition to fluorescence.  And with special software, they are capable of colorimetry as well.

A CRAIC Technologies™ microfluorometer is a purpose-built system that allows you to analyze UV-visible-NIR range fluorescent emissions non-destructively and with no sample contact.  Capable of analyzing even sub-micron areas, they are also capable of high resolution digital imaging.  Designed for ease-of-use, they are durable instruments designed for microscale spectroscopy.

To learn more about microspectroscopy and microfluorometers, select one of the following links: 

What is a Microfluorometer?

Microfluorometer Design

Uses of Microfluorometers

20/30 PV™ Microfluorometers

 

 

 

 

Fluid Inclusions

Fluid Inclusion

 
 
The lit octagonal optical head and the CRAIC CoalPro™ are trademarks of CRAIC Technologies, Inc.
 

Fluorescence Microspectroscopy can be used to analyze fluid inclusions.

Fluid Inclusions are microscopic pockets of gas or liquids trapped within minerals.  The contents of these pockets may contain information on the original physical and chemical conditions in which the source rock formed.  This information can be useful for many applications including mineralogical surveys and petroleum exploration.

CRAIC Technologies offers a number of solutions for the analysis of fluid inclusions.  These include purpose built systems such as the CRAIC CoalPro™ to the 308 Coal™ and 20/30 PV™ for advanced microscopic imaging and spectral analysis of petrographic samples.  These systems are capable of transmission, reflectance and fluorescence microspectroscopy and imaging of even sub-micron fluid inclusions.

To learn more about the science behind fluid inclusion analysis, select one of the following links: 

Science of Microspectroscopy

Microspectrophotometer Design

Uses of Microspectrophotometers

CRAIC CoalPro™ Measurement System

308 Coal™ Spectrophotometer for your Microscope

 

 

 

 

Petrography

Petrography

Petrography is the detailed examination of rocks including the analysis of fluid inclusions.

Petrography is the detailed study of rocks, most commonly on the microscopic scale.  Such studies can include simple imaging, measuring the luminous intensity with a microscope photometer, or the transmission, reflectance and even fluorescence spectra with a microscope spectrophotometer.  Some of the most common applications are fluorescence microspectroscopy of fluid inclusion, vitrinite reflectance of coal and kerogens as well as the spectral analysis of gemstones and minerals.

CRAIC Technologies offers a number of petrographic solutions.  These include purpose built systems such as the CRAIC CoalPro II™ Vitrinite Reflection Measurement System to the 308 Coal™ and 20/30 PV™ for advanced microscopic imaging and spectral analysis of petrographic samples.

To learn more about the science behind petrographic analysis, select one of the following links: 

What is a mMcrospectrophotometer?

Science of Microspectrophotometers

CRAIC CoalPro II™ Measurement System

308 Coal™ Spectrophotometer for your Microscope

20/30 PV™ Microspectrophotometer


 
 

 

Measuring the Energy Content of Coal

Vitrinite Coal

Optical Petrography

Coal is made up a macerals.  Macerals are the organic component of coal, kerogen or other petroleum source rocks.  Examples of macerals include vitrinite, inertinite and liptinite.  Vitrinite is one of the primary components of coal, petroleum source rocks and  sedimentary kerogens. Under a microscope, it has a shiny appearance and is derived from the cell-wall material or woody tissue of plants.  Since vitrinite changes predictably with heating (over geological time periods), vitrinite reflectance levels are a reliable measurement of a coal sample's thermal maturity thus its value as a source of energy.  As such, methods have been developed to measure the percentage of reflected light from a coal sample and to determine the thermal maturity or rank of the coal sample and thus the energy content of that sample.  Vitrinite reflectance measurements are also used on petroleum source rocks and sedimentary kerogens to measure their thermal maturity and thus the type of petrochemicals that they contain.  Reflectance values between 0.5 to 1.3% are considered optimal for these types of samples.

How to Measure Vitrinite Reflectance

The measurement of vitrinite reflectance is defined by both ISO and ASTM standards methods (as well as other national standards).  ISO 7404-5 and ASTM D2798 both state that measuring the vitrinite reflectance of coal is to be done with a specially configured microscope using a calibrated photometer.  The microscope is configured for incident illumination with green light where the illuminating light may be either plane-polarized or not.  The reflected light intensity is measured with either a photometer, a spectrophotometer or with a digital camera fitted to the microscope. 

The system is calibrated with special Vitrinite Reflectance Standards, supplied by CRAIC.  The sample is then placed on the sample stage and brought into focus.  Using the standard methodology, at least 100 measurements are made of the sample.  This allows the user to test blends that contain coals of different ranks.  From the data, the mean and standard deviation of all the readings are calculated as percent reflectance.  The spread of the individual reflectance values is also plotted as a histogram.  This allows the user to determine the different macerals and types of macerals in a sample.  This data will give an indication of the rank of the coal sample.

For more detail on vitrinite reflectance, visit the following pages:

ISO 7404-5 Method of Determining MIcroscopically the Reflectance of Vitrinite
Vitrinite Reflectance by CRAIC

 

The Raman Microscope Spectrometer is designed to measure Raman spectra of microscopic samples or microscopic areas of larger objects.  The fully integrated Raman microscope spectrometer has been built and optimized for microspectroscopy and is capable of measuring the Raman spectra of microscopic samples.  

The CRAIC Technologies™ Raman microscope spectrometer is a purpose-built system that allows you to analyze Raman microspectra™ non-destructively and with no sample contact.  Capable of analyzing even microscopic areas, they are also capable of color digital imaging.  Designed for ease-of-use, they are durable instruments designed for microscale Raman spectroscopy.

To learn more about Raman microspectroscopy and the CRAIC Technologies Raman microscope spectrometer, select one of the following links: 

The Science of Raman Microscope Spectroscopy

How a Raman Microscope Spectrometer is Used

CRAIC Apollo Raman Microscope Spectrometers


We invite you to discover our revolutionary technologies that include a Raman microscope spectrometer, microspectrometers, UV-visible-NIR microscopes, Traceable Standards, microscope spectrometer accessories and software. We further invite you to experience our exceptional service and technical support.