Vision Research

Vision Research requires microspectroscopy of photoreceptors

Microspectrophotometers are used for vision research and the study of photoreceptors 

 

Vision research of photoreceptors

Microspectrometers are able to measure the optical effects of light on photoreceptors

 

 

Vision research uses microspectrophotometers to study photoreceptors on the micron scale.

Vision Research is a broad field of science that deals with understanding vision in every aspect from the optics to the neuroscience.  One aspect of vision research is to understand the chemistry that occurs during the process of vision.  This necessitates studying photoreceptors and visual pigments of all types of animals under different lighting conditions.  Since many of the material that is studied is extremely small, specialized microspectrophotometers have been built to analyze them.

Light with a high enough energy (above a certain wavelength) is absorbed by a photosensitive pigment inside the photoreceptor cell, such as rhodopsin, which causes retinal to change shape.  This results in a series of changes on the molecular scale which results in the stimulation of neurons and eventually vision.  The microspectrophotometers that are used for vision research are specially designed so that molecules like rhodopsin or retinal are not stimulated before any measurements are made. 

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To learn more about microspectroscopy and vision research, select one of the following links: 

What is a Microspectrophotometer?

Science of Microspectrophotometers

Microspectrophotometer Design

Uses of Microspectrophotometers

20/30 PV™ Microspectrophotometers

 UV-visible-NIR microscopes, UV-visible-NIR microspectrometers and Raman microspectrometers are general purpose laboratory instruments. They have not been cleared or approved by the European IVD Directive, the United States Food and Drug Administration or any other agency for diagnostic, clinical or other medical use.

Contamination Analysis

Contaminat analysis by UV microspectroscopy

Microspectrophotometers are used to detect contaminants on precision devices.

contamination analysis

 

UV microscope image of contaminated HDD

UV microscope image of a contaminated hard disk read-write head.

 

 

Contamination analysis uses UV-visible-NIR microscopes, microspectrophotometers and Raman microspectrometers to locate and identify contaminants.

Contamination Analysis is a difficult problem for any failure analysis laboratory.  It is especially challenging if the contamination has occured in a supposedly clean environment.  If the contaminated device is a precision device, such as an integrated circuit or a hard disk drive, the contaminants may also be microscopic in scale. Certainly, the critical dimensions of the device are microscopic.  And as many contaminants are invisible to the human eye due to their chemical composition, more sensitive analysis tools are required.

Due to the fact that many of the contaminants are UV active and  the components themselves are microscopic, ultraviolet microscopes, microspectrophotometers and Raman microspectrometers such as those made by CRAIC are irreplaceable.  These units are not only used to locate contaminants but are  used to determine their source by both microscopy and microspectroscopy.  Microspectrophotometers also have additional capabilities to measure thin film thickness and even absolute reflectivity.

To learn more about microspectroscopy and contaminant analysis, select one of the following links: 

Science of Microspectrophotometers

Science of UV Microscopes

Uses of Microspectrophotometers and UV Microscopes

UVM-1™ UV Microscope

20/30 PV™ Microspectrophotometers

CRAIC Apollo™ Raman Microspectrometers


 

Hard Disk Drive Inspection

Contaminated hard disk drive head

Microspectrophotometers are used to detect contaminants on hard disk drives

 

UV microscope image of contaminated HDD

UV microscope image of a contaminated HDD

 

 

Microspectrophotometers are used to locate and identify contaminants as well as measure film thickness on hard disk drives and sliders.

Hard Disk Drive, or HDD, is a device that stores data in a non-volatile manner.  Data is stored on the magnetic surfaces of rapidly spinning platters.  Data is written and read from the platters by a read/write head in modern drives.  Due to the nature of the device, todays HDD units are built under clean conditions and are then sealed.  However, during the manufacture of these devices, contamination of their components can occur and this can cause issues with their performance.  Contamination can be due to many different issues and can also cause many different performance problems with the hard disk drive.  Many of the contaminants are also invisible to a normal microscope: they only are active in the ultraviolet region.

Due to the fact that many of the contaminants of hard disk drives are UV active and that the components themselves are microscopic, ultraviolet microscopes and microspectrophotometers such as those made by CRAIC are irreplaceable.  These units are not only used to locate contaminants but are also used to determine their source by both microscopy and microspectroscopy.  Microspectrophotometers also have additional capabilities to measure thin film thickness and even absolute reflectivity.

To learn more about microspectroscopy and HDD metrology, select one of the following links: 

What is a Microspectrophotometer?

Science of Microspectrophotometers

Microspectrophotometer Design

Uses of Microspectrophotometers

20/30 PV™ Microspectrophotometers

 

 

Spectroscopic Pathology

Spectroscopic Pathology with a microspectrophotometer

Spectroscopic pathology research can be done with microspectrophotometers using reflectance, absorbance and fluorescence microspectroscopy and imaging.

spectroscopic pathology

UV image of a cell

Ultraviolet image of a cell

 

 

Spectroscopic pathology can use microspectrophotometers to eamine tissues on the microscopic scale.

Spectroscopic pathology is the study of disease by examining the spectroscopic characteristics of tissues and bodily fluids.  Biomarkers are analyzed either directly in the tissue or fluid or with the aid of taggant molecules.  An example of the latter would be a fluorescent immunoassays of tissues.  Spectroscopic pathology is being developed to aid the pathologist in identifying diseases in tissues and fluids by analyzing and comparing the spectra of the diseased versus the healthy samples.  It has been shown that some types of diseased tissue can be directly identified by their spectrum while others can be tagged and then located and identified.

Microspectrophotometers, such as the 20/30 PV™, are able to measure the UV-visible-NIR range spectrum of microscopic areas of tissue samples in absorbance, reflectance and even fluorescence.  Combined with automated stages, these systems could map out the spectral characteristics of tissue samples with very high spatial and spectral resolution.  Additionally, such microspectrophotometers are also able to directly image the biological samples from the deep UV to the NIR yielding even faster diagnostic techniques.

To learn more about microspectroscopy and applications such as spectroscopic pathology, select one of the following links: 

What is a Microspectrophotometer?

Science of Microspectrophotometers

Microspectrophotometer Design

Uses of Microspectrophotometers

20/30 PV™ Microspectrophotometers

 UV-visible-NIR microscopes, UV-visible-NIR microspectrometers and Raman microspectrometers are general purpose laboratory instruments. They have not been cleared or approved by the European IVD Directive, the United States Food and Drug Administration or any other agency for diagnostic, clinical or other medical use.

Spectral Pathology

Spectral Pathology with a microspectrophotometer

Spectral pathology research can be done with microspectrophotometers using reflectance, absorbance and fluorescence microspectroscopy and imaging.

spectroscopic pathology

UV image of a cell

Ultraviolet image of a cell

 

 

Spectral pathology can use microspectrophotometers to examine tissue on the microscopic scale.

Spectral pathology is the study of disease by examining the spectroscopic characteristics of tissues and bodily fluids.  Biomarkers are analyzed either directly in the tissue or fluid or with the aid of taggant molecules.  An example of the latter would be a fluorescent immunoassays of tissues.  Spectral pathology is being developed to aid the pathologist in identifying diseases in tissues and fluids by analyzing and comparing the spectra of the diseased versus the healthy samples.  It has been shown that some types of diseased tissue can be directly identified by their spectrum while others can be tagged and then located and identified.

Microspectrophotometers, such as the 20/30 PV™, are able to measure the UV-visible-NIR range spectrum of microscopic areas of tissue samples in absorbance, reflectance and even fluorescence.  Combined with automated stages, these systems could map out the spectral characteristics of tissue samples with very high spatial and spectral resolution.  Additionally, such microspectrophotometers are also able to directly image the biological samples from the deep UV to the NIR yielding even faster diagnostic techniques.

To learn more about microspectroscopy and applications such as spectral pathology, select one of the following links: 

What is a Microspectrophotometer?

Science of Microspectrophotometers

Microspectrophotometer Design

Uses of Microspectrophotometers

20/30 PV™ Microspectrophotometers

 UV-visible-NIR microscopes, UV-visible-NIR microspectrometers and Raman microspectrometers are general purpose laboratory instruments. They have not been cleared or approved by the European IVD Directive, the United States Food and Drug Administration or any other agency for diagnostic, clinical or other medical use.